ANNUAL REPORT FY22 45 2. Significant accounting policies (cont’d) Property, plant and equipment Plant and equipment is stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis to write off the net cost of each item of property, plant and equipment (excluding land) over their expected useful lives as follows: Plant and equipment 3-7 years Trade and other payables These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Consolidated Entity prior to the end of the financial year and which are unpaid. Due to their short-term nature they are measured at amortised cost and are not discounted. The amounts are unsecured and are usually paid within 30 days of recognition. Research and development expenditure Research costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. Development costs are capitalised when it is probable that the project will be a success considering its commercial and technical feasibility; the Consolidated Entity is able to use or sell the asset; the Consolidated Entity has sufficient resources and intent to complete the development; and its costs can be measured reliably. Capitalised development costs are amortised on a straight-line basis over the period of their expected benefit. Finance costs Finance costs attributable to qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the asset. All other finance costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. Employee benefits Short-term employee benefits Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits, annual leave and long service leave expected to be settled wholly within 12 months of the reporting date are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. Other long-term employee benefits The liability for long service leave not expected to be settled within 12 months of the reporting date are measured at the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date using the projected unit credit method. Consideration is given to expected future wage and salary levels, experience of employee departures and periods of service. Expected future payments are discounted using market yields at the reporting date on high quality corporate bonds with terms to maturity and currency that match, as closely as possible, the estimated future cash outflows. Share-based payments Equity-settled and cash-settled share-based compensation benefits are provided to employees. Equity-settled transactions are awards of shares, or options over shares, that are provided to employees in exchange for the rendering of services. Cash-settled transactions are awards of cash for the exchange of services, where the amount of cash is determined by reference to the share price. The cost of equity-settled transactions are measured at fair value on grant date. Fair value is independently determined using either the Binomial or Black-Scholes option pricing model that takes into account the exercise price, the term of the option, the impact of dilution, the share price at grant date and expected price volatility of the underlying share, the expected dividend yield and the risk free interest rate for the term of the option, together with non-vesting conditions that do not determine whether the Consolidated Entity receives the services that entitle the employees to receive payment. No account is taken of any other vesting conditions. The cost of equity-settled transactions are recognised as an expense with a corresponding increase in equity over the vesting period. The cumulative charge to profit or loss is calculated based on the grant date fair value of the award, the best estimate of the number of awards that are likely to vest and the expired portion of the vesting period. The amount recognised in profit or loss for the period is the cumulative amount calculated at each reporting date less amounts already recognised in previous periods.