ANNUAL REPORT FY22 47 3. Critical accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions The preparation of the financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements. Management continually evaluates its judgements and estimates in relation to assets, liabilities, contingent liabilities, revenue and expenses. Management bases its judgements, estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on other various factors, including expectations of future events, management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The resulting accounting judgements and estimates will seldom equal the related actual results. The judgements, estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities (refer to the respective notes) within the next financial year are discussed below. Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic Judgement has been exercised in considering the impacts that the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had, or may have, on the Consolidated Entity based on known information. This consideration extends to the nature of the supply chain, staffing and geographic regions in which the Consolidated Entity operates. Other than as addressed in specific notes, there does not currently appear to be either any significant impact upon the financial statements or any significant uncertainties with respect to events or conditions which may impact the Consolidated Entity unfavourably as at the reporting date or subsequently as a result of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Share-based payment transactions The Consolidated Entity measures the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the date at which they are granted. The fair value is determined by using either the Binomial or Black-Scholes model taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the instruments were granted. The accounting estimates and assumptions relating to equity-settled share-based payments would have no impact on the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next annual reporting period but may impact profit or loss and equity. Recovery of deferred tax assets Deferred tax assets are recognised for deductible temporary differences only if the Consolidated Entity considers it is probable that future taxable amounts will be available to utilise those temporary differences and losses. Assessment of R&D expenditure not advancing to a stage of technical feasibility Research costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. Development costs are capitalised when it is probable that the project will be a success considering its commercial and technical feasibility; the Consolidated Entity is able to use or sell the asset; the Consolidated Entity has sufficient resources and intent to complete the development; and its costs can be measured reliably. 4. Operating segments From the period beginning 1 July 2019 the Board considers that the Consolidated Entity has only operated in one Segment being research and development of drugs focusing on small molecules with potential therapeutic benefit in areas of significant medical needs and it operates in one geographical area being Australasia. The financial information presented in the statement of financial performance and statement of financial position represents the information for the business segment.