Technical Glossary

ASCVD: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Atherosclerosis: The build-up of cholesterol plaque on the artery wall

Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB) :   The BBB is a protective barrier between the components of the blood and the cells that form the brain tissue, keeping infection at bay in the healthy brain.

Cardiovascular disease: Refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke

CNS: Central nervous system

Core infarct area: The primary area of damage in the brain from stroke or TBI

CVD: Cardiovascular disease

Excitotoxicity: The pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances

HDL-cholesterol: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Moderates cholesterol levels in the body

HMG-CoA reductase: 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

Inflammatory cascade: A highly coordinated network of immune cells that respond to perceived harmful stimuli

Ischaemic stroke: The most common type. It is usually caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain

LDL: Low density lipoprotein, which are combinations of fats (lipids) and proteins, are the form in which lipids are transported in the blood

LDL-cholesterol: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, commonly referred to as “bad” cholesterol. Elevated LDL-cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb): A type of protein made in the laboratory that can bind to specified substances in the body. A monoclonal antibody is made so that it binds to only one substance.

Neuroinflammation: Inflammation of the nervous tissue. It may be initiated in response to a variety of cues, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites or autoimmunity

Neuroprotectant: Development of a drug to protect the brain from glutamate mediated excitotoxicity

PCSK9: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, a type of protein that prevents LDL-cholesterol from recycling in the liver

PCSK9 inhibitor: A class of drug that inhibits the expression of the PCSK9 protein

Penumbra zone: Areas of the brain that are damaged (by stroke or TBI) but not yet dead, and offer promise to rescue the brain tissue with the appropriate therapies

Preclinical: A stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin

R&D: Research and Development. Forms part of the pre-clinical stage.

Statin drugs: A class of drug that can reduce cholesterol levels

Stroke: The burst, rupture or clotting (block) of a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain

Traumatic brain injury (TBI): A nondegenerative, noncongenital insult to the brain resulting from an external mechanical force that can lead to permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical and psychological functions.